The Asian Journal of Applied Linguistics <p>Welcome to the Asian Journal of Applied Linguistics publishing papers about the teaching, learning or use of English in Asia or by Asians.&nbsp;If you are interested in submitting a paper please look in the <a href="/ajal/index.php/ajal/information/authors" target="_self">For Authors</a> link for further information.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), <span style="text-decoration: underline;">with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal</span>.</li> </ol> <p>Note: Authors are encouraged to post copies of their AJAL published papers to their own institutional or personal/professional websites along with a link to the original paper at the AJAL website. This will assist in diseminating their work as well as raising awareness of the journal.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> (Dr David Gardner) (Technical Support: Alex Sum) Tue, 05 Nov 2019 21:28:19 +0800 OJS 60 The POS system: Language socialization through technology in a Vietnamese restaurant in South Texas <p>Under the language socialization paradigm, the research reported here focuses on documenting communication and language socialization patterns, mediated through a point-of-sale (POS) system, among the migrant staff working in a Vietnamese restaurant in South Texas, USA. The study employed an ethnographic approach that drew upon analyses of observation field notes, semi-structured interviews, naturalistic data, and artefacts. Findings suggest that in channelling work-related communication within the restaurant, the POS system also acts as (i) a socializing tool into the working culture, (ii) a site for meaning-making and learning, and (iii) a crucial link in the joint acts of socialization. The paper concludes by proposing a model of what transnational sites could do to promote the process of second language socialization and enculturation; in so doing, it also seeks to contribute to the growing body of research on language socialization, especially with regard to its intersection with technologies, as well as provide refreshed perspectives on migrant workers’ language development and acculturation process in similar contexts of migration.</p> Nguyen Dao Copyright (c) 2019 Nguyen Dao Tue, 05 Nov 2019 20:31:24 +0800 The avoidance of phrasal verbs by adult Chinese immigrants: the effective exposure to the L2 environment, language proficiency and the causes of avoidance behaviour <p>The study reported in this paper identifies the influences of exposure to a second language (L2) environment and language proficiency on the avoidance of phrasal verbs among Chinese immigrants residing in the UK. It then discusses the social and psycholinguistic aspects of the causes behind this behaviour. Four Chinese groups and one native-speaker group (total 55 participants) took a multiple-choice test and completed a questionnaire. There were two major findings: 1) Exposure itself does not necessarily lead to non-avoidance of phrasal verbs, as the Chinese immigrants with lower language proficiency still avoid using them after a number of years residence in the UK; 2) Language proficiency affects the L2 speakers’ avoidance behaviour. The results suggest that effective exposure to the target language environment when combined with advanced language proficiency, positively reduces the Chinese immigrant participants’ avoidance behaviour when using phrasal verbs, and also confirms that avoidance behaviour is consistent with the interlanguage development framework proposed by (<a href="#_ENREF_25">Liao &amp; Fukuya, 2004</a>).</p> Abby Ping Wang Copyright (c) 2019 Abby Ping Wang Tue, 05 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0800 Collaborative knowledge co-construction about an English article system <p>Pair work and group work are widely researched in the field of second-language education and there has been considerable focus on exploring their effectiveness and the nature of learning they represent within the Vygotskian sociocultural theoretical framework. However, there is little consensus about how learners solve problems together and what influence such experiences have on their linguistic knowledge, particularly in grammar-focused tasks with a special focus on complex linguistic items.&nbsp;This paper describes a case study which explores the impact of collaborative dialogue on learners’ joint performance and their understanding of the English article system. The results show that collaboration helps the learners’ joint performance by providing them with chances to pool their linguistic knowledge, particularly with the use of their first language for context comprehension as a basis for article selection. However, the results also suggest that such interactions do not always have a positive impact on individuals’ understanding of the article system, leaving some of the questions raised during interaction unsolved. From those results, the current paper notes the importance of establishing an appropriate learning condition with the aim of maximising the learning opportunities collaborative work generates.</p> Yu Tomiwa Copyright (c) 2019 Yu Tomiwa Wed, 16 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0800 Mathematical discourse in PhD theses: Considerations for the language teacher <p>Mathematical discourse is unique in that it is made up of “semiotic resources of mathematical symbolism, visual display in the form of graphs and diagrams, and language” (<a href="#_ENREF_16">O'Halloran, 1998, p. 360</a>). Natural language plays the important role of guiding the reader through the logical reasoning of the propositional content. This study investigates how logical reasoning processes are expressed and how authors interact with readers. The study used as data publications on mathematical writing, interviews with disciplinary experts, and an analysis of eight PhD theses in mathematics using Hyland’s (<a href="#_ENREF_7">2005</a>) metadiscourse framework. The expert writing and interviews showed that a high premium is placed on mathematical content, clarity, conciseness and a sense of collegiality all of which contribute to the aesthetic value of an argument. The analysis of the theses found that mathematical writing at doctoral writing involves both linear mathematical reasoning and meta-mathematical explanations (<a href="#_ENREF_10">as defined by Kuteeva &amp; McGrath, 2015</a>). The study also reveals that contrary to the common perception that mathematical writing is impersonal, writers do interact and engage with readers in various ways.</p> Ming Cherk Lee Copyright (c) 2019 Ming Cherk Lee Tue, 05 Nov 2019 20:41:08 +0800 Learning English grammar through flipped learning <p>This study examines the effect of flipped learning on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ grammar. One hundred thirty-two first year university students, from four intact Freshman English classes, were divided into a flipped learning group (FLG) and a traditional instruction group (TIG). The two groups followed a weekly two-stage process. The FLG started with the individual space: the time and place learners complete a given task. They then moved on to the group space. The TIG, however, started with the group space, and moved on to the individual space. The individual work occurred outside the classroom, whereas the group work occurred in class. The treatment period was over 10 weeks. The study focused on the extent to which language learners’ experience of flipped learning or traditional instruction reinforced their English grammar learning. To collect data, both the FLG and CIG were given pre- and post- grammar tests. In addition, the FLG was asked to complete a 16-item survey on their perceptions of learning grammar through flipped learning. Findings indicate that the flipped learning programme was more effective in teaching English grammar than traditional instruction. The results of the post-test reveal a statistically significant difference between the two groups, (<em>t =</em> 8.21, <em>p</em> &lt; .001), with a large effect size (Cohen’s <em>d</em> = 1). In addition, the survey analysis revealed the FLG participants’ satisfaction with flipped learning in terms of online material, in-class discussions, and other benefits.</p> Rachid Bezzazi Copyright (c) 2019 Rachid Bezzazi Tue, 05 Nov 2019 20:40:28 +0800 Internal locus of control as predictor of EFL learners’ autonomy <p>This study quantitatively examines the relationship between tertiary level EFL learners’ internal locus of control and their autonomy both as a predictor and a determiner, and the impact of learners’ age and gender on their internal locus of control. To achieve such goals two questionnaires were distributed to 132 Iranian EFL learners (90 female, 42 male) in a university in Iran. A correlation analysis of the data shows a positive significant relationship between learners’ internal locus of control and their autonomy which reveals that internal locus of control is a significant predictor of those learners’ autonomy. The data also show the learners’ gender and age have no significant impact on their internal locus of control and, thus, also no impact on their autonomy.</p> Behnam Aghayani, Elmira Hajmohammadi Copyright (c) 2019 Behnam Aghayani, Elmira Hajmohammadi Tue, 05 Nov 2019 20:39:50 +0800 English learning lived experiences of Chinese student newcomers in a Canadian postsecondary EAP programme: The role of gender <p>Gender roles are still strictly defined in some countries while in others they are becoming increasingly fluid (<a href="#_ENREF_17">McKeen &amp; Bu, 2005</a>). This article examines Chinese student newcomers’ English learning lived experiences in a postsecondary English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme and how different gender roles help or hinder the integration trajectories of those students into Canadian multicultural society. In this study, women language learners who seem to follow a more traditional feminine position experience more intercultural transformations of their identities than their male counterparts with worldviews perceived as more masculine. The study shows that gender roles serve as an impacting factor on second language learning processes for Chinese women and men. We conclude that gender equality pedagogy and gender-sensitive awareness should be promoted in language teaching and learning in order to foster a more inclusive educational environment for students from diverse backgrounds who might still have traditional behaviours towards gender roles.</p> Chuanmei Lin, Sylvie Roy Copyright (c) 2019 Chuanmei Lin, Sylvie Roy Tue, 15 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0800 Tracing nativised irregular verbs in Malaysian English <p>The alternate use of suffix –t and –ed among Malaysians has become a concern since it can denote conformity towards British English, American English or be deemed as a form of grammatical nativisation. This study aims to reveal the preferred suffix variant used by Malaysians when forming the past tense and past participle. A Malaysian online English newspaper corpus representing acrolectal Malaysian English was built to facilitate this study. Twelve irregular verbs that can take suffix –t and –ed were analysed using WordSmith Tools 5. Findings showed that Malaysians generally prefer to use suffix –ed when forming the past tense but opt for suffix –t when forming the past participle. The integration of morphological elements from both British English and American English into everyday use by Malaysians seems to be contributing towards grammatical nativisation, ultimately a standardised variety if it persists.</p> Jian Mei Chai, Christina Sook Beng Ong Copyright (c) 2019 Jian Mei Chai, Christina Sook Beng Ong Tue, 05 Nov 2019 20:30:17 +0800 EFL learners’ beliefs about positive and negative effects of translation as a learning strategy in Indonesia <p>The use of translation as a learning strategy has been extensively studied, but less attention has been paid to beliefs about the positive and negative effects of translation in EFL learning. This study attempts to describe EFL learners’ beliefs about positive and negative effects of translation as a learning strategy by adopting a quantitative approach in which the data were collected by using questionnaires. The findings reveal that Indonesian EFL learners believe translation can help them learn EFL and that despite some potential negative effects, translation will not inhibit their learning. Both beliefs about positive and negative effects of translation simultaneously affect the use of translation as a learning strategy to help EFL learners learn EFL, but the belief about positive effects of translation makes a more significant contribution to it. The study’s implications and limitations with some recommendations for future research are also discussed.</p> Gede Eka Putrawan Copyright (c) 2019 Gede Eka Putrawan Tue, 05 Nov 2019 20:30:46 +0800 EFL Teachers’ and Learners’ Beliefs toward Communicative Language Teaching <p>This paper investigates Cambodian EFL teachers’ and students’ beliefs about communicative language teaching (CLT) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. A quantitative approach was employed in the study; 33 teachers and 80 students responded to a questionnaire adapted from <a href="#_ENREF_15">Khatib and Tootkaboni (2017)</a>. The questionnaire covers six aspects of CLT (the role of learners; the role of teachers; the role of grammar; the role of the learners’ native language; pair and group work activities, and error and correction). The results show that teachers and students held positive beliefs toward CLT, especially regarding the roles of teachers and learners, and pair/group work. In addition, teachers and students held different beliefs about CLT in the areas of the role of teachers, the role of the native language, and pair/group work. This study concludes that CLT is positively welcomed in the Cambodian context.</p> Nhem Davut Copyright (c) 2019 Nhem Davut Tue, 05 Nov 2019 20:36:58 +0800 Book Review: Scripts of Servitude (Beatriz P. Lorente) Simon Cheung Scanlon Copyright (c) 2019 Simon Cheung Scanlon Tue, 05 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0800 Book Review: Review - Transcending Self and Other Through Akogare [Desire] (Chisato Nonaka) Akiko C. Mereu Copyright (c) 2019 Akiko C. Mereu Tue, 05 Nov 2019 20:15:49 +0800 Book Review: Researching and teaching second language speech acts in the Chinese context (Cynthia Lee) Yu Hang Kwan Copyright (c) 2019 Yu Hang Kwan Tue, 05 Nov 2019 20:17:12 +0800